Are We Helping?

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Parent Confidence

Our first research project will assess parents’ level of confidence during pregnancy and at the time of discharge from the hospital. We will ask parents anonymously at the 7-month prenatal visit and time of discharge, using a standardized, validated measure. We will collect data for 5 months before the first NBO training to get a sense of parents’ experience before we introduce the NBO to the community. We will continue to ask the same questions throughout the 3 years of the project as the NBO is implemented into routine care.

As parent confidence is linked to decreased incidence of postpartum depression, we will also measure community rates of postpartum depression.


Haslam, D. M., Pakenham, K. I. and Smith, A. (2006), Social support and postpartum depressive symptomatology: The mediating role of maternal self‐efficacy. Infant Ment. Health J., 27: 276-291.

Kollhoff, J and Barnett (2013) “Parenting self-efficacy: Links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment” Early Human Development, 89: 249–256

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The NBO Training

Using an evaluation tool modeled on one used by the Brazelton Institute, we will ask training participants before the training, immediately after, and several months after about such things as comfort level supporting parent-infant relationships, and ability to make successful referrals for families in need of support beyond the immediate newborn period.

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Opioid withdrawing babies and their caregivers

The NBO is ideally suited for supporting these vulnerable relationships between babies who can be difficult to console and parents who are themselves struggling with complex feelings. Research demonstrates that preventive interventions in this population aimed at supporting parent-infant relationships in the perinatal period improve outcomes. We will design studies to assess the impact of the NBO in this population.


MacMullen,N  Dulski,L  Blobaum,P (2014) Evidence-Based Interventions for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Pediatric Nursing 40(4)165-203

Pajulo, M., Pyykkönen, N., Kalland, M., Sinkkonen, J., Helenius, H., Punamäki, R.-L., & Suchman, N. (2012). Substance-Abusing Mothers in Residential Treatment with Their Babies: Importance of Pre-and Postnatal Maternal Reflective Functioning Infant Mental Health Journal33(1), 70–81.

Paris R., Sommer A., Marron B. (2018) Project BRIGHT: An Attachment-Based Intervention for Mothers with Substance Use Disorders and Their Young Children. In: Muzik M., Rosenblum K. (eds) Motherhood in the Face of Trauma. Integrating Psychiatry and Primary Care. Springer, Cham